During the Wales Summit, NATO Heads of State and Government restated the centrality of collective defense and the relevance of the cooperative approach to security.

In this framework, the security of the member countries more affected by the fallouts of the crisis in Ukraine has been strengthened, including with the set-up of the NRF “Spearhead Force” and an effective ballistic missile defense system.

New programs for partner countries have also been launched, such as the Defense Capacity Building Initiative. The exercise Trident Juncture, in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, reflects NATO’s determination to successfully face the current security challenges and threats.

However, the commitment of the European NATO members to meet the 2% threshold of their GDP for defense spending is essential to guarantee the interoperability in crisis management operations both among allies and with partners.

Looking to the next Warsaw Summit and in a time of financial constraints and growing technology costs, to maximize synergies and bolster multinational programs and industrial cooperation are key to enhancing defense capabilities and building capacities vis-à-vis terrorism and hybrid warfare.